Immunogenicity of cell death

 


ΔS ≥ 0 |  designinbiology

from review: Immunogenic cell death in cancer and infectious disease by NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGYbrought to you by Graphic Services for Science and Graphic Biology

Five ingredients of a particle accelerator

 


ΔS ≥ 0 | ri-science

Did you know there are over 30,000 particle accelerators in the world? The design of particle accelerators is a creative process. Often it starts with just one person and their concept, but they all tend to have 5 key ingredients.

1 – Particles – where do you get them, how do you make them? Accelerators might use atoms with electrons split off, called ions, or the particles inside atoms themselves: electrons or protons.

2 – Energy – you need an acceleration mechanism, some way of giving the particles a push. Typically this uses electric fields.

3 – Control – once your particles are moving, you need to control them, to move them and focus them where they’re needed. This is generally done with magnetic fields.
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4 – Collision – not all particle accelerators are ‘colliders’ in the traditional sense. They don’t all collide beams together like at the LHC. But in almost every case you do need to collide your beam of accelerated particles into something – this might be a fixed target to investigate a sample, or even directly into a person’s body, such as during medical treatments.
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5 – Detection – there’s normally not much point doing all of this work unless you can then detect the outcome and learn from it. You need to measure what happens to the beam of particles when they collide with their target.
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Find out more in our animation about how to design a particle accelerator.Find out more in our animation about how to design a particle accelerator.

Extracting the Chlorophyll

 



ΔS ≥ 0 |  rudescience

Chlorophyll is a term used for several closely related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae andplants. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, chloros (“green”) and φύλλον, phyllon (“leaf”).

Chlorophyll is an extremely important bio molecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. Conversely, it is a poor absorbent of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, hence the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues.

One way of extracting Chlorophyll is by ethanol extraction (the safest). Plant material is slightly boiled in ethanol for a few moments and then filtered to reveal the green stuff extracted from your other green stuff. Chlorophyll is also fluorescent giving off a Red-ish color under UV light.

Giffed by: rudescience From: this video